Testicular Pain and Swelling Facts

Testicular pain can have several causes, from infections to traumatic injuries. Sometimes, testicular pain can be a medical emergency.

Testicular pain refers to pain or discomfort felt in one or both testicles. The pain may be acute or chronic, dull, sharp, or a sensation of soreness or vague discomfort/ache.
The primary role of the testicle is to produce sperm and the hormone testosterone.
Many diseases and other health conditions can cause testicular pain, and some causes are medical emergencies.


The testicles are very sensitive. Even a minor injury can cause pain. In some conditions, abdominal pain may occur before testicle pain.

Causes of testicle pain or pain in the testicle area can include:

Diabetic neuropathy (nerve damage caused by diabetes)
Epididymitis (testicle inflammation)
Hydrocele (fluid buildup that causes swelling of the scrotum)
Idiopathic testicular pain (unknown cause)
Inguinal hernia
Kidney stones
Orchitis (inflamed testicle)
Scrotal masses
Spermatocele (fluid buildup in the testicle)
Testicle injury or blow to the testicles
Testicular torsion (twisted testicle)
Urinary tract infection (UTI)
Varicocele (enlarged veins in the scrotum)

Signs and Symptoms

• Pain in one or both testicles
• Swelling
• Redness
• Tenderness of the testicle and/or scrotum
• You also may have nausea, vomiting, and fever.
• The different causes of testicular pain can be diagnosed using blood tests, urinalysis, and imaging studies, in addition to a complete physical exam.
• The complications of the conditions causing testicular pain may include infection, impaired fertility, and permanent damage to the testicle, or loss of the testicle.
• Only a few causes of testicular pain are preventable.


Testicular pain of any kind on one or both sides can be distressing. Most cases don’t require urgent medical attention, though persistent pain should be evaluated by a doctor a sexologist or urologist, if possible.

If testicle pain comes on suddenly and severely, or develops along with other symptoms, such as fever or blood in your urine, then see a doctor immediately. If the pain is mild, but doesn’t subside after a few days, then make an appointment.

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